Glossary

Geography

12 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 12 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Prachuab Kiri.

18 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 18 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Hlepauk.

26 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 26 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Kunknitkway.

30 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 30 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Retpu.

35 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 35 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Tanyin.

40 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 40 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Beke Taung.

45 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 45 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Anarkwan.

60 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 60 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Taunzun.

80 Kilo hospital - 80 Kilo camp (Burma) covered quite a large area. Part of it was up-hill and part down in the valley. For a time both parts were used as a working camp, but in June 1943 the very sick of No.5 Branch, who could not fend for themselves, were sent to the part in the valley with a few bags of food to die. Until at least September, the upper part was still used as a working camp. (Williams Force were in it until September and gave what help they could.) The valley part of 80 Kilo was used as No.5 Branch "hospital" from June 1943 to 7th December 1943, when it was evacuated. That part of that camp for that time period had a separate and terrible identity for the men. Information courtesy of A. Holland (daughter of VX56641 H. M. Gregson).

105 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 105 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Aungganaung.

133 Kilo Camp - Work camp on the Burma Railway (located 133 kilometres from the start in Burma). Also known as Niki.

Anarkwan Camp - Also known as 45 Kilo Camp (Burma).

Aungganaung Camp - Also known as 105 Kilo Camp (Burma).

Balcombe Camp - Photo Australian Army Training Camp in Mt. Martha, Victoria, Australia.

Batavia - Photo (Air attack February 1942) Previous name (from 1619 until 1942) for Jakarta, Indonesia.

Beke Taung Camp - Also known as 40 Kilo Camp (Burma).

Beyrouth - Previous spelling for Beirut, Lebanon.

Bicycle Camp - Photo (24/09/1945) Major P.O.W. camp in Batavia, Java. So called because of the large number of bicycles that were found there.

Bogor - Present name for Buitenzorg, Java.

Bonegilla Camp - Australian Army Training Camp in Bonegilla, Victoria, Australia (near Lake Hume). Signals training was held there.

Buitenzorg - Previous name for Bogor, Java.

Burma - Previous name for Myanmar.

Caloundra - Australian Army Training Camp in Caloundra, Queensland, Australia.

Camp Pell - Australian Army Training Camp in Victoria, Australia.

Canungra - Photo (25/11/1943) Australian Training Centre (Jungle Warfare) in Queensland.

Ceylon - Previous name for Sri Lanka.

Changi Camp - Photo (04/09/1942) Major P.O.W. camp and staging area at Singapore for working parties sent across South-East Asia by the Japanese.

Claremont Camp - Photo (April 1943) Australian Army Training Camp in Western Australia.

Darley Camp - Photo (July 1941) Australian Army Training Camp near Bacchus Marsh, Victoria, Australia.

Hlepauk Camp - Also known as 18 Kilo Camp (Burma).

Kapooka Camp - Australian Army Training Camp in New South Wales, Australia.

Kunknitkway Camp - Also known as 26 Kilo Camp (Burma).

Makassar - Photo City in Celebes, Indonesia (previously Netherlands East Indies) overrun by the Japanese 09/02/1942. Used as a staging post / port after recapture by the Allies.

Merdjayoun - Photo (view of the fort) Thought to mean Plain of the Springs (marj means plain and ayoun is Arabic for springs). Other spellings include Marjayoun and Marjaayoun. The Annual Pilgrimage is held on the Sunday closest to 17/06/1941 when the 2/2 Pioneer Battalion first went into action at Fort Merdjayoun during the Syrian Campaign.

Moulmein - Photo (04/09/1942) Major port in Burma used by the Japanese to land P.O.W.s as working parties for the Burma end of the Railway.

Myanmar - Present name for Burma.

Nam Tok - Means waterfall in Thai. Small town in Sai Yok district, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Burma Railway Tarso Camps were located here.

Niki Camp - Also known as 133 Kilo Camp (Thailand).

Northam Camp - Photo (April 1943) Australian Army Training Camp in Western Australia.

Pell Camp - See Camp Pell.

Prachuab Kiri Camp - Also known as 12 Kilo Camp (Burma).

Puckapunyal - Photo Australian Army Training Camp in Seymour, Victoria, Australia. Slang is 'Pucka'.

Ramu Valley - Major valley through the interior of New Guinea and the backdrop of a major Allied advance which resulted in bitter fighting. Ramu means “death” in the native language. The Ramu Valley (New Guinea) literally means 'Valley of Death'.

Retpu Camp - Also known as 30 Kilo Camp (Burma).

River Valley Road Camp - Photo of sign Major P.O.W. transit camp at Singapore. Photo courtesy of WX16572 Neil MacPherson. In his words 'I spent 6 months June to December 1944 waiting for transport to Japan here, compared to the Burma Railway it was an oasis of tranquillity, very few work parties, very few bashings, some great reunions with mates separated on the railway. The countless number of P.O.W.s who transitted through this camp never dreamed of what was in front of them, probably just as well eh?'

Sandakan Camp - Photo (abandoned camp 24/10/1945) Scene of the start of the infamous Sandakan Death Marches. About 750 British and more than 1,750 Australian P.O.W.s were sent to the camp between 1942-43. The P.O.W.s were force marched 250 km, in three separate marches, across Borneo to the village of Ranau in 1945. The march took nearly a year and only six prisoners who had escaped en route survived (all Australian). Those who arrived at Ranau were killed by the Japanese soldiers.

Siam - Previous name for Thailand.

Singapore - Photo (1945 view towards harbour) Means “city of the lion” in Sanskrit (named in 14th century). A major port and the main British naval base in south-east Asia. Invaded by the Japanese February 1942 from the north across a narrow strait and renamed Syonan-to. In an incredible military blunder, all defenses of the city faced south towards the sea. Between 20,000 and 100,000 Chinese are estimated to have been killed during the Japanese occupation. The Japanese army established the bacteriological research unit 9420 here (part of Unit 731) where Japanese researchers performed experiments on human guinea pigs.

Strawberry Camp - Australian Army Training Camp near Mingenew, Western Australia. Strawberry was completely lacking in all amenities. It consisted of a tin shed on the railway station and a few scattered farmhouses. 2/2 Pioneer second forming personnel were sent there.

Syonan-to - Official Japanese name for Singapore during the Japanese occupation of the island from 1942 to 1945.

Tandjoeng Priok - Port of Batavia, Java.

Tanyin Camp - Also known as 35 Kilo Camp (Burma).

Tarso Camp - Camps were located near the small town of Nam Tok in Sai Yok district, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.

Taunzun Camp - Also known as 60 Kilo Camp (Burma).

Taungzun Camp - Also known as 60 Kilo Camp (Burma).

Yeerongpilly Camp - Australian Army Staging Camp in Brisbane, Queensland.